Open Access Open Badges Research article

Gene expression of transporters and phase I/II metabolic enzymes in murine small intestine during fasting

Heleen M van den Bosch12, Meike Bünger12, Philip J de Groot12, Jolanda van der Meijde1, Guido JEJ Hooiveld12 and Michael Müller12*

Author Affiliations

1 Nutrition, Metabolism and Genomics group, Division of Human Nutrition, Wageningen, University, Bomenweg 2, 6703 HD Wageningen, The Netherlands

2 Nutrigenomics Consortium, TI Food and Nutrition, Wageningen, The Netherlands

For all author emails, please log on.

BMC Genomics 2007, 8:267  doi:10.1186/1471-2164-8-267

Published: 7 August 2007



Fasting has dramatic effects on small intestinal transport function. However, little is known on expression of intestinal transport and phase I/II metabolism genes during fasting and the role the fatty acid-activated transcription factor PPARα may play herein. We therefore investigated the effects of fasting on expression of these genes using Affymetrix GeneChip MOE430A arrays and quantitative RT-PCR.


After 24 hours of fasting, expression levels of 33 of the 253 analyzed transporter and phase I/II metabolism genes were changed. Upregulated genes were involved in transport of energy-yielding molecules in processes such as glycogenolysis (G6pt1) and mitochondrial and peroxisomal oxidation of fatty acids (Cact, Mrs3/4, Fatp2, Cyp4a10, Cyp4b1). Other induced genes were responsible for the inactivation of the neurotransmitter serotonin (Sert, Sult1d1, Dtd, Papst2), formation of eicosanoids (Cyp2j6, Cyp4a10, Cyp4b1), or for secretion of cholesterol (Abca1 and Abcg8). Cyp3a11, typically known because of its drug metabolizing capacity, was also increased. Fasting had no pronounced effect on expression of phase II metabolic enzymes, except for glutathione S-transferases which were down-regulated. Time course studies revealed that some genes were acutely regulated, whereas expression of other genes was only affected after prolonged fasting. Finally, we identified 8 genes that were PPARα-dependently upregulated upon fasting.


We have characterized the response to fasting on expression of transporters and phase I/II metabolic enzymes in murine small intestine. Differentially expressed genes are involved in a variety of processes, which functionally can be summarized as a) increased oxidation of fat and xenobiotics, b) increased cholesterol secretion, c) increased susceptibility to electrophilic stressors, and d) reduced intestinal motility. This knowledge increases our understanding of gut physiology, and may be of relevance for e.g. pre-surgery regimen of patients.