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Open Access Highly Accessed Methodology article

High accuracy genotyping directly from genomic DNA using a rolling circle amplification based assay

Osama A Alsmadi, Carole J Bornarth, Wanmin Song, Michele Wisniewski, Jing Du, Joel P Brockman, A Fawad Faruqi, Seiyu Hosono, Zhenyu Sun, Yuefen Du, Xiaohong Wu, Michael Egholm, Patricio Abarzúa, Roger S Lasken and Mark D Driscoll*

Author Affiliations

Molecular Staging, Inc. 300 George Street, Suite 701, New Haven, CT 06511, USA

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BMC Genomics 2003, 4:21  doi:10.1186/1471-2164-4-21

Published: 30 May 2003

Abstract

Background

Rolling circle amplification of ligated probes is a simple and sensitive means for genotyping directly from genomic DNA. SNPs and mutations are interrogated with open circle probes (OCP) that can be circularized by DNA ligase when the probe matches the genotype. An amplified detection signal is generated by exponential rolling circle amplification (ERCA) of the circularized probe. The low cost and scalability of ligation/ERCA genotyping makes it ideally suited for automated, high throughput methods.

Results

A retrospective study using human genomic DNA samples of known genotype was performed for four different clinically relevant mutations: Factor V Leiden, Factor II prothrombin, and two hemochromatosis mutations, C282Y and H63D. Greater than 99% accuracy was obtained genotyping genomic DNA samples from hundreds of different individuals. The combined process of ligation/ERCA was performed in a single tube and produced fluorescent signal directly from genomic DNA in less than an hour. In each assay, the probes for both normal and mutant alleles were combined in a single reaction. Multiple ERCA primers combined with a quenched-peptide nucleic acid (Q-PNA) fluorescent detection system greatly accellerated the appearance of signal. Probes designed with hairpin structures reduced misamplification. Genotyping accuracy was identical from either purified genomic DNA or genomic DNA generated using whole genome amplification (WGA). Fluorescent signal output was measured in real time and as an end point.

Conclusions

Combining the optimal elements for ligation/ERCA genotyping has resulted in a highly accurate single tube assay for genotyping directly from genomic DNA samples. Accuracy exceeded 99 % for four probe sets targeting clinically relevant mutations. No genotypes were called incorrectly using either genomic DNA or whole genome amplified sample.