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Sequencing and characterization of the transcriptome of half-smooth tongue sole (Cynoglossus semilaevis)

Wenji Wang, Qilin Yi, Liman Ma, Xiaosu Zhou, Haitao Zhao, Xubo Wang, Jie Qi, Haiyang Yu, Zhigang Wang and Quanqi Zhang*

Author Affiliations

College of Marine Life Sciences, Ocean University of China, Key Laboratory of Marine Genetics and Breeding, Ministry of Education, Qingdao 266003, China

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BMC Genomics 2014, 15:470  doi:10.1186/1471-2164-15-470

Published: 13 June 2014



Half-smooth tongue sole (Cynoglossus semilaevis) is a valuable fish for aquaculture in China. This fish exhibits sexual dimorphism, particularly different growth rates and body sizes between two genders. Thus, C. semilaevis is a good model that can be used to investigate mechanisms responsible for such dimorphism, this model can also be utilized to answer fundamental questions in evolution and applied fields of aquaculture. Hence, advances in second-generation sequencing technology, such as 454 pyrosequencing, could provide a robust tool to study the genome characteristics of non-model species.


In this study, C. semilaevis was subjected to de novo transcriptome sequencing and characterization. A total of 749,954 reads were generated using a single 454 sequencing run in a full PicoTiter plate. These reads were then assembled into 62,632 contigs with a 10-fold average sequencing coverage. A total of 26,589 sequences were successfully annotated based on sequence similarities; among these sequences, 3,451 transcripts exhibited gene ontology terms and 2,362 showed enzyme commissions associated with 186 pathways from Kyoto Encyclopedia of Gene and Genomes pathways. A search of repetitive elements was performed, and 1,898 transposable elements were identified. Approximately 7,800 simple-sequence repeats and 21,234 single-nucleotide polymorphisms were also detected.


Our data provided an integrated and comprehensive transcriptome resource for C. semilaevis. These data could be used for further research in population genetics, gene function, and tissue-specific gene expressions.

Cynoglossus semilaevis; Half-smooth tongue sole; Transcriptome; SNP; SSR