Transcriptomics of cryophilic Saccharomyces kudriavzevii reveals the key role of gene translation efficiency in cold stress adaptations
1 Instituto de Agroquímica y Tecnología de los Alimentos, IATA-CSIC, P.O. Box 73E-46100 Burjassot, Spain
2 Departamento de Biotecnología, Instituto de Agroquímica y Tecnología de los Alimentos (CSIC), Burjassot, P.O. Box 73E-46100 Valencia, Spain
BMC Genomics 2014, 15:432 doi:10.1186/1471-2164-15-432Published: 4 June 2014
Comparative transcriptomics and functional studies of different Saccharomyces species have opened up the possibility of studying and understanding new yeast abilities. This is the case of yeast adaptation to stress, in particular the cold stress response, which is especially relevant for the food industry. Since the species Saccharomyces kudriavzevii is adapted to grow at low temperatures, it has been suggested that it contains physiological adaptations that allow it to rapidly and efficiently acclimatise after cold shock.
In this work, we aimed to provide new insights into the molecular basis determining this better cold adaptation of S. kudriavzevii strains. To this end, we have compared S. cerevisiae and S. kudriavzevii transcriptome after yeast adapted to cold shock. The results showed that both yeast mainly activated the genes related to translation machinery by comparing 12°C with 28°C, but the S. kudriavzevii response was stronger, showing an increased expression of dozens of genes involved in protein synthesis. This suggested enhanced translation efficiency at low temperatures, which was confirmed when we observed increased resistance to translation inhibitor paromomycin. Finally, 35S-methionine incorporation assays confirmed the increased S. kudriavzevii translation rate after cold shock.
This work confirms that S. kudriavzevii is able to grow at low temperatures, an interesting ability for different industrial applications. We propose that this adaptation is based on its enhanced ability to initiate a quick, efficient translation of crucial genes in cold adaptation among others, a mechanism that has been suggested for other microorganisms.