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Open Access Research article

Stage-specific differential gene expression profiling and functional network analysis during morphogenesis of diphyodont dentition in miniature pigs, Sus Scrofa

Fu Wang12, Jing Xiao2, Wei Cong2, Ang Li1, Fulan Wei1, Junji Xu1, Chunmei Zhang1, Zhipeng Fan3, Junqi He4 and Songlin Wang14*

Author Affiliations

1 Molecular Laboratory for Gene Therapy & Tooth Regeneration, Beijing Key Laboratory of Tooth Regeneration and Function Reconstruction, School of Stomatology, Capital Medical University, Tian Tan Xi Li No.4, Beijing 100050, PR China

2 Department of Oral Basic Science, College of Stomatology, Dalian Medical University, Liaoning 116044, China

3 Laboratory of Molecular Signaling and Stem Cells Therapy, Beijing Key Laboratory of Tooth Regeneration and Function Reconstruction, School of Stomatology, Capital Medical University, Beijing 100050, China

4 Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, School of Basic Medical Sciences, Capital Medical University, Beijing 100069, China

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BMC Genomics 2014, 15:103  doi:10.1186/1471-2164-15-103

Published: 6 February 2014

Abstract

Background

Our current knowledge of tooth development derives mainly from studies in mice, which have only one set of non-replaced teeth, compared with the diphyodont dentition in humans. The miniature pig is also diphyodont, making it a valuable alternative model for understanding human tooth development and replacement. However, little is known about gene expression and function during swine odontogenesis. The goal of this study is to undertake the survey of differential gene expression profiling and functional network analysis during morphogenesis of diphyodont dentition in miniature pigs. The identification of genes related to diphyodont development should lead to a better understanding of morphogenetic patterns and the mechanisms of diphyodont replacement in large animal models and humans.

Results

The temporal gene expression profiles during early diphyodont development in miniature pigs were detected with the Affymetrix Porcine GeneChip. The gene expression data were further evaluated by ANOVA as well as pathway and STC analyses. A total of 2,053 genes were detected with differential expression. Several signal pathways and 151 genes were then identified through the construction of pathway and signal networks.

Conclusions

The gene expression profiles indicated that spatio-temporal down-regulation patterns of gene expression were predominant; while, both dynamic activation and inhibition of pathways occurred during the morphogenesis of diphyodont dentition. Our study offers a mechanistic framework for understanding dynamic gene regulation of early diphyodont development and provides a molecular basis for studying teeth development, replacement, and regeneration in miniature pigs.

Keywords:
Gene expression profile; Diphyodont; Odontogenesis; Miniature pig