Effects of dsRNA-injections on the development of T. castaneum. dsRNAs specific for different TcABC, TcEcR-A and TcVer genes were injected into penultimate instar larvae (PL), pre-pupae (PP), or adults (AD), and the phenotypes were monitored. (A) TcVer - injection into PL or PP (PLI or PPI): normal development, except for the expected white-eye phenotype. (B) TcABCA-9A/B - PLI: wing defects, elytral shortening and blisters. (C) TcABCB-5A - PLI or PPI: severe molting defects during pupal-adult molt. (D) TcABCB-5A – injection into AD (ADI): disruption of ovary maturation and egg development. (E) TcABCE-3A - PLI: larval growth arrest and death before molting. Note, localized zones of melanization (arrows). PPI: pharate pupae died before adult eclosion. (F) TcABCF-2A - PLI: death in the quiescent stage. PPI: growth arrest and death as pharate adults. (G) TcEcR-A - PLI: death in the quiescent stage. PPI: pupal-adult intermediates, defects in wing development. (H) TcABCG-8A – PLI and PPI: molting defects and developmental arrest; adult beetles with shortened elytra. (I) TcEcR-A or TcABCG-8A - PLI: prematurely developed compound eyes. (J) TcABCH-9C - PLI: death during the quiescent stage before molting. PPI: abortive larval-pupal molt and death as pharate pupae. (K) TcABCG-4C - PLI: death during the quiescent stage before molting; PPI: death at the pupal stage due to desiccation. (L) TcABCG-4C - PPI: detail view on the ventral abdomen of a pupa with traces of water bleeding at the intersegments (arrows). (M) TcVer, TcABCG-9A and TcABCG-9B - PLI: white-eye phenotype. TcRosy and TcSepia - PLI: wild-type eye and cuticle colorings. (N) TcABCG-9A and TcABCG-9B - PLI: white Malpighian tubules in adults (reddish-brown Malpighian tubules in wild-type beetles).
Broehan et al. BMC Genomics 2013 14:6 doi:10.1186/1471-2164-14-6