Inferring the expression variability of human transposable element-derived exons by linear model analysis of deep RNA sequencing data
1 Department of Computer Science, Xavier University of Louisiana, 1 Drexel Drive, New Orleans, LA 70125, USA
2 Huawei Noah Ark’s Lab, Hong Kong, China
3 Biostatistics Program, School of Public Health, Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center, New Orleans, Louisiana, USA
4 Tulane Cancer Center, Tulane School of Public Health and Tropical Medicine, New Orleans, Louisiana 70122, USA
BMC Genomics 2013, 14:584 doi:10.1186/1471-2164-14-584Published: 28 August 2013
The exonization of transposable elements (TEs) has proven to be a significant mechanism for the creation of novel exons. Existing knowledge of the retention patterns of TE exons in mRNAs were mainly established by the analysis of Expressed Sequence Tag (EST) data and microarray data.
This study seeks to validate and extend previous studies on the expression of TE exons by an integrative statistical analysis of high throughput RNA sequencing data. We collected 26 RNA-seq datasets spanning multiple tissues and cancer types. The exon-level digital expressions (indicating retention rates in mRNAs) were quantified by a double normalized measure, called the rescaled RPKM (Reads Per Kilobase of exon model per Million mapped reads). We analyzed the distribution profiles and the variability (across samples and between tissue/disease groups) of TE exon expressions, and compared them with those of other constitutive or cassette exons. We inferred the effects of four genomic factors, including the location, length, cognate TE family and TE nucleotide proportion (RTE, see Methods section) of a TE exon, on the exons’ expression level and expression variability. We also investigated the biological implications of an assembly of highly-expressed TE exons.
Our analysis confirmed prior studies from the following four aspects. First, with relatively high expression variability, most TE exons in mRNAs, especially those without exact counterparts in the UCSC RefSeq (Reference Sequence) gene tables, demonstrate low but still detectable expression levels in most tissue samples. Second, the TE exons in coding DNA sequences (CDSs) are less highly expressed than those in 3′ (5′) untranslated regions (UTRs). Third, the exons derived from chronologically ancient repeat elements, such as MIRs, tend to be highly expressed in comparison with those derived from younger TEs. Fourth, the previously observed negative relationship between the lengths of exons and the inclusion levels in transcripts is also true for exonized TEs. Furthermore, our study resulted in several novel findings. They include: (1) for the TE exons with non-zero expression and as shown in most of the studied biological samples, a high TE nucleotide proportion leads to their lower retention rates in mRNAs; (2) the considered genomic features (i.e. a continuous variable such as the exon length or a category indicator such as 3′UTR) influence the expression level and the expression variability (CV) of TE exons in an inverse manner; (3) not only the exons derived from Alu elements but also the exons from the TEs of other families were preferentially established in zinc finger (ZNF) genes.