Overview of CMS in sterile plants and fertility restoration in fertile plants. Expression of mitochondrial CMS genes led to dysfunction of mitochondria. Products of nuclear restorer genes suppressed the effects of CMS genes. The state of the mitochondria was signaled to nuclear target genes and resulted in male sterile or fertile flower.
Yan et al. BMC Genomics 2013 14:26 doi:10.1186/1471-2164-14-26