Marker genes affected by pollen feeding or varroa parasitism. Expression values of the 4 genes chosen among the set of genes differentially transcribed between the different treatments. RT-PCR data normalized to β-actin are shown. Means ± SE are shown for 8 pools of 3 bees per treatment. Different letters indicate significant differences detected by Mann-Whitney U tests.
Alaux et al. BMC Genomics 2011 12:496 doi:10.1186/1471-2164-12-496