Additional file 4.
Schematic overview of TGF-β signaling in D. melanogaster. TGF-β ligands bind as dimers to a transmembrane receptor complex, which activates signal transducing protein that translocates to the nucleus to regulate gene activity (modified after ). Components of the BMP signaling cascade are shown in red, components of the Activin-β signaling cascade in blue, shared components in purple. In the case of generalized BMP signaling, extraecellular ligands (Dpp, Scw, Gbb) are regulated by BMP antagonists Sog and Tsg/Cv/Srw(?), and metalloprotease activity of Tld/Tok, which cleaves Sog and frees BMP. Additional BMP specific regulators are transmembrane protein CV-2, which directly binds BMPs, and membrane associated protein Kek5. Active BMPs signal through the receptor complex composed of Tkv, Sax and Put, which phophorylates Mad. Phophorylated Mad recruits Medea and translocates to the nucleus. For abbreviations, see legend to Figure 3.
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Lemke et al. BMC Genomics 2011 12:278 doi:10.1186/1471-2164-12-278