MAPK signaling pathway. MAPKs are expressed in all eukaryotic cells and are activated by diverse stimuli ranging from cytokines, growth factors, neurotransmitters, hormones, cellular stress, and cell adherence. The basic assembly of the MAPK pathway is a three-component module that includes three kinases that establish a sequential activation pathway comprising a MAPK kinase kinase (MKKK, MEKK, STE11, or STE13), MAPK kinase (MKK, MEK or STE7), and MAPK (green). The activated MAPK may translocate to the nucleus and bind to transcription factors (light blue). The mammalian MAPK can be subdivided into five families: ERK, p38, JNK, nml, and ERK5. Each MAPK family has distinct biological functions. Colored blocks correspond to proteins indentified in the S. mansoni predicted proteome and white blocks are mammals' proteins with no homologs in S. mansoni predicted proteome. The + signal represents protein activation and - signal protein inhibition by protein phosphatases (red colored proteins). S. mansoni has all representatives of ERK, p38, and JNK pathways including proteins of STE (MEK1/2, MKK), AGC (PKC and PKA), CaMK (MAPKAPK), TK (EGFR, FGFR), and TKL (Raf and TGFbeta-RI) groups.
Andrade et al. BMC Genomics 2011 12:215 doi:10.1186/1471-2164-12-215