Open Access Open Badges Research article

Construction of an almond linkage map in an Australian population Nonpareil × Lauranne

Iraj Tavassolian16, Gholmereza Rabiei2, Davina Gregory17, Mourad Mnejja3, Michelle G Wirthensohn1, Peter W Hunt4, John P Gibson2, Christopher M Ford1, Margaret Sedgley5 and Shu-Biao Wu2*

Author Affiliations

1 School of Agriculture, Food and Wine, The University of Adelaide, Glen Osmond, SA 5005, Australia

2 Centre for Genetic Analysis and Applications and School of Environmental and Rural Science, University of New England, Armidale, NSW 2351, Australia

3 IRTA. Centre de Recerca en Agrigenòmica CSIC-IRTA-UAB. Carretera de Cabrils Km2. 08348 Cabrils (Barcelona), Spain

4 CSIRO Livestock Industries, FD McMaster Laboratory, Chiswick, New England Highway, Armidale, NSW 2350, Australia

5 Faculty of Arts and Sciences, University of New England, Armidale, NSW 2351, Australia

6 Current Address: Faculty of Agriculture, University of Shahid Bahonar, Kerman, Iran

7 Current Address: Agricultural Research & Development, Tasmanian Alkaloids, Westbury, TAS 7303, Australia

For all author emails, please log on.

BMC Genomics 2010, 11:551  doi:10.1186/1471-2164-11-551

Published: 9 October 2010



Despite a high genetic similarity to peach, almonds (Prunus dulcis) have a fleshless fruit and edible kernel, produced as a crop for human consumption. While the release of peach genome v1.0 provides an excellent opportunity for almond genetic and genomic studies, well-assessed segregating populations and the respective saturated genetic linkage maps lay the foundation for such studies to be completed in almond.


Using an almond intraspecific cross between 'Nonpareil' and 'Lauranne' (N × L), we constructed a moderately saturated map with SSRs, SNPs, ISSRs and RAPDs. The N × L map covered 591.4 cM of the genome with 157 loci. The average marker distance of the map was 4.0 cM. The map displayed high synteny and colinearity with the Prunus T × E reference map in all eight linkage groups (G1-G8). The positions of 14 mapped gene-anchored SNPs corresponded approximately with the positions of homologous sequences in the peach genome v1.0. Analysis of Mendelian segregation ratios showed that 17.9% of markers had significantly skewed genotype ratios at the level of P < 0.05. Due to the large number of skewed markers in the linkage group 7, the potential existence of deleterious gene(s) was assessed in the group. Integrated maps produced by two different mapping methods using JoinMap® 3 were compared, and their high degree of similarity was evident despite the positional inconsistency of a few markers.


We presented a moderately saturated Australian almond map, which is highly syntenic and collinear with the Prunus reference map and peach genome V1.0. Therefore, the well-assessed almond population reported here can be used to investigate the traits of interest under Australian growing conditions, and provides more information on the almond genome for the international community.