Open Access Open Badges Research article

Effects of temperature on gene expression in embryos of the coral Montastraea faveolata

Christian R Voolstra12, Julia Schnetzer2, Leonid Peshkin3, Carly J Randall4, Alina M Szmant4 and Mónica Medina2*

Author Affiliations

1 Red Sea Research Center, King Abdullah University of Science and Technology (KAUST), Thuwal, Saudi Arabia

2 School of Natural Sciences, University of California, Merced, 5200 North Lake Road Merced, CA 95343, USA

3 Systems Biology, Harvard Medical School, 200 Longwood Ave, W Alperts #536, Boston, MA 02115, USA

4 Center for Marine Science, University North Carolina Wilmington, 5600 Marvin K Moss Lane, Wilmington, NC 28409, USA

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BMC Genomics 2009, 10:627  doi:10.1186/1471-2164-10-627

Published: 23 December 2009



Coral reefs are expected to be severely impacted by rising seawater temperatures associated with climate change. This study used cDNA microarrays to investigate transcriptional effects of thermal stress in embryos of the coral Montastraea faveolata. Embryos were exposed to 27.5°C, 29.0°C, and 31.5°C directly after fertilization. Differences in gene expression were measured after 12 and 48 hours.


Analysis of differentially expressed genes indicated that increased temperatures may lead to oxidative stress, apoptosis, and a structural reconfiguration of the cytoskeletal network. Metabolic processes were downregulated, and the action of histones and zinc finger-containing proteins may have played a role in the long-term regulation upon heat stress.


Embryos responded differently depending on exposure time and temperature level. Embryos showed expression of stress-related genes already at a temperature of 29.0°C, but seemed to be able to counteract the initial response over time. By contrast, embryos at 31.5°C displayed continuous expression of stress genes. The genes that played a role in the response to elevated temperatures consisted of both highly conserved and coral-specific genes. These genes might serve as a basis for research into coral-specific adaptations to stress responses and global climate change.