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Open Access Research article

Discovery of cis-elements between sorghum and rice using co-expression and evolutionary conservation

Xi Wang, Georg Haberer and Klaus FX Mayer*

Author Affiliations

MIPS/IBIS Institute of Bioinformatics and System Biology, Helmholtz Center Munich, D-85764 Neuherberg, Germany

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BMC Genomics 2009, 10:284  doi:10.1186/1471-2164-10-284

Published: 26 June 2009

Abstract

Background

The spatiotemporal regulation of gene expression largely depends on the presence and absence of cis-regulatory sites in the promoter. In the economically highly important grass family, our knowledge of transcription factor binding sites and transcriptional networks is still very limited. With the completion of the sorghum genome and the available rice genome sequence, comparative promoter analyses now allow genome-scale detection of conserved cis-elements.

Results

In this study, we identified thousands of phylogenetic footprints conserved between orthologous rice and sorghum upstream regions that are supported by co-expression information derived from three different rice expression data sets. In a complementary approach, cis-motifs were discovered by their highly conserved co-occurrence in syntenic promoter pairs. Sequence conservation and matches to known plant motifs support our findings. Expression similarities of gene pairs positively correlate with the number of motifs that are shared by gene pairs and corroborate the importance of similar promoter architectures for concerted regulation. This strongly suggests that these motifs function in the regulation of transcript levels in rice and, presumably also in sorghum.

Conclusion

Our work provides the first large-scale collection of cis-elements for rice and sorghum and can serve as a paradigm for cis-element analysis through comparative genomics in grasses in general.