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Open Access Highly Accessed Research article

A genome-wide scan for signatures of selection in Chinese indigenous and commercial pig breeds

Songbai Yang12, Xiuling Li2, Kui Li1, Bin Fan2* and Zhonglin Tang1*

Author Affiliations

1 Key Laboratory of Farm Animal Genetic Resources and Germplasm Innovation of Ministry of Agriculture, Institute of Animal Science, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Beijing 100193, P.R. China

2 Key Laboratory of Agricultural Animal Genetics, Breeding and Reproduction, Ministry of Education & College of Animal Science and Technology, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan 430070, P.R. China

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BMC Genetics 2014, 15:7  doi:10.1186/1471-2156-15-7

Published: 15 January 2014

Abstract

Background

Modern breeding and artificial selection play critical roles in pig domestication and shape the genetic variation of different breeds. China has many indigenous pig breeds with various characteristics in morphology and production performance that differ from those of foreign commercial pig breeds. However, the signatures of selection on genes implying for economic traits between Chinese indigenous and commercial pigs have been poorly understood.

Results

We identified footprints of positive selection at the whole genome level, comprising 44,652 SNPs genotyped in six Chinese indigenous pig breeds, one developed breed and two commercial breeds. An empirical genome-wide distribution of Fst (F-statistics) was constructed based on estimations of Fst for each SNP across these nine breeds. We detected selection at the genome level using the High-Fst outlier method and found that 81 candidate genes show high evidence of positive selection. Furthermore, the results of network analyses showed that the genes that displayed evidence of positive selection were mainly involved in the development of tissues and organs, and the immune response. In addition, we calculated the pairwise Fst between Chinese indigenous and commercial breeds (CHN VS EURO) and between Northern and Southern Chinese indigenous breeds (Northern VS Southern). The IGF1R and ESR1 genes showed evidence of positive selection in the CHN VS EURO and Northern VS Southern groups, respectively.

Conclusions

In this study, we first identified the genomic regions that showed evidences of selection between Chinese indigenous and commercial pig breeds using the High-Fst outlier method. These regions were found to be involved in the development of tissues and organs, the immune response, growth and litter size. The results of this study provide new insights into understanding the genetic variation and domestication in pigs.

Keywords:
Pig; F-statistics; Breed; Positive selection; Network analysis