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Genetic monitoring detects an overlooked cryptic species and reveals the diversity and distribution of three invasive Rattus congeners in south Africa

Armanda D Bastos12*, Deenadayalan Nair3, Peter J Taylor4, Helene Brettschneider1, Frikkie Kirsten5, Elmarie Mostert12, Emil von Maltitz5, Jennifer M Lamb3, Pim van Hooft16, Steven R Belmain7, Giancarlo Contrafatto3, Sarah Downs3 and Christian T Chimimba12

Author Affiliations

1 Mammal Research Institute, Department of Zoology and Entomology, University of Pretoria, Private Bag 20, Hatfield 0028, Pretoria, South Africa

2 DST-NRF Centre of Excellence for Invasion Biology (CIB), Department of Zoology & Entomology, University of Pretoria, Pretoria 0002, South Africa

3 School of Biological and Conservation Sciences, University of KwaZulu-Natal, University Road, Westville, KwaZulu-Natal, 3629, South Africa

4 Department of Ecology & Resource Management, School of Environmental Sciences, University of Venda, P/Bag X5050, Thohoyandou 0950, South Africa

5 ARC-Plant Protection Research Institute, Private Bag X134, Queenswood 0121, South Africa

6 Resource Ecology Group, Wageningen University, Droevendaalsesteeg 3a, 6708 PB Wageningen, The Netherlands

7 Natural Resources Institute, University of Greenwich, Kent ME4 4TB, UK

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BMC Genetics 2011, 12:26  doi:10.1186/1471-2156-12-26

Published: 16 February 2011

Additional files

Additional file 1:

Table S1: Eigenvectors from first three principal components (PC) analysis of eight bioclimatic variables in 134 native and 13 invasive records of occurrence.

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Additional file 2:

Figure S2: Median-joining networks of cytochrome b (cyt b) haplotypes for each of the three Rattus species in South Africa (a) Rattus tanezumi (full-length), (b) Rattus rattus (full-length). The circle size of South African Rattus haplotypes is proportional to the frequency of the haplotype. Haplotype colour coding is consistent with that used in Figure 1, viz. Yellow = south Africa (This study), Green = Africa (Genbank), Grey = Outside Africa (Genbank). Each of the mutational steps separating haplotypes is indicated in blue and corresponds to the relevant position in the cyt b gene, whilst black nodes correspond to median vectors. Haplotype numbers are the same as those provided in Table 1.

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Additional file 3:

Figure S3: Neighbor-joining tree depicting R. rattus haplotype relationships inferred from a homologous 1043 bp region of the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene. Nodal support values, expressed as a percentage and ≥ 55 are indicated next to the relevant nodes and are based on 1,000,000 bootstrap replications. The tree was rooted with R. tanezumi, haplotype RT01. Square brackets are used to indicate haplotypes defined in the Tollenaere et al. [4] study. The haplotypes identified on the basis of complete cyt b sequence data, and assigned in this study are indicated in bold and denoted RR01-RR10.

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