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Open Access Highly Accessed Research article

Chromosome differentiation patterns during cichlid fish evolution

Andréia B Poletto1, Irani A Ferreira1, Diogo C Cabral-de-Mello1, Rafael T Nakajima1, Juliana Mazzuchelli1, Heraldo B Ribeiro1, Paulo C Venere2, Mauro Nirchio3, Thomas D Kocher4 and Cesar Martins1*

Author Affiliations

1 UNESP - Universidade Estadual Paulista, Instituto de Biociências, Departamento de Morfologia, Botucatu, SP, Brazil

2 UFMT - Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso, Instituto Universitário do Araguaia, Pontal do Araguaia, MT, Brazil

3 Universidad de Oriente, Escuela de Ciencias Aplicadas del Mar, Boca de Rio, Venezuela

4 University of Maryland, Department of Biology, College Park, MD 20742 USA

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BMC Genetics 2010, 11:50  doi:10.1186/1471-2156-11-50

Published: 15 June 2010

Abstract

Background

Cichlid fishes have been the subject of increasing scientific interest because of their rapid adaptive radiation which has led to an extensive ecological diversity and their enormous importance to tropical and subtropical aquaculture. To increase our understanding of chromosome evolution among cichlid species, karyotypes of one Asian, 22 African, and 30 South American cichlid species were investigated, and chromosomal data of the family was reviewed.

Results

Although there is extensive variation in the karyotypes of cichlid fishes (from 2n = 32 to 2n = 60 chromosomes), the modal chromosome number for South American species was 2n = 48 and the modal number for the African ones was 2n = 44. The only Asian species analyzed, Etroplus maculatus, was observed to have 46 chromosomes. The presence of one or two macro B chromosomes was detected in two African species. The cytogenetic mapping of 18S ribosomal RNA (18S rRNA) gene revealed a variable number of clusters among species varying from two to six.

Conclusions

The karyotype diversification of cichlids seems to have occurred through several chromosomal rearrangements involving fissions, fusions and inversions. It was possible to identify karyotype markers for the subfamilies Pseudocrenilabrinae (African) and Cichlinae (American). The karyotype analyses did not clarify the phylogenetic relationship among the Cichlinae tribes. On the other hand, the two major groups of Pseudocrenilabrinae (tilapiine and haplochromine) were clearly discriminated based on the characteristics of their karyotypes. The cytogenetic mapping of 18S ribosomal RNA (18S rRNA) gene did not follow the chromosome diversification in the family. The dynamic evolution of the repeated units of rRNA genes generates patterns of chromosomal distribution that do not help follows the phylogenetic relationships among taxa. The presence of B chromosomes in cichlids is of particular interest because they may not be represented in the reference genome sequences currently being obtained.