Phylogenetic tree of the main branches of human mtDNA hg K1 showing the western European paraphyletic lineages falling outside of K1a, K1b and K1c. All mutations are transitions unless indicated by a letter. Dotted lines indicate samples for which replicated whole genome data is not available; SNPs denoted in bold are those tested in the K1 multiplex; the tree is rooted in African hg L3. All lineages with 16362C are grouped by parsimony into a single potential European paraphyletic clade. The clade of K1d is defined by three coding region mutations shared between SO44 and Oc5 from . Together with a single example of K1* from Iran  (not shown), these represent the sum total of hg K1 mtDNA lineages currently known to fall outside of K1a\K1b\K1c, amongst a worldwide survey of over 1000 haplogroup K samples (1Howell et al., 2003 ; 2this study; 3 Genbank direct submission).
Endicott et al. BMC Genetics 2009 10:29 doi:10.1186/1471-2156-10-29