Response to artificial selection for concerted and antagonistic changes in eyespot color composition and size. A and B, Response each generation relative to unselected control values, plotted in phenotypic standard deviations from the starting population mean. Both characters were selected for concerted (black points and lines) and antagonistic (grey) change in two eyespots, filled and solid points represent replicate populations. Lines join points in consecutive generations and mean phenotypes for the starting populations are plotted at the origin. A, Selection for color composition of the fourth and sixth ventral hindwing eyespots (E4 and E6): 'BB' ('Black-Black') and 'GG' ('Gold-Gold') are concerted directions; 'BG' ('Black-Gold') and 'GB' ('Gold-Black') are antagonistic directions. B, Selection for size (relative to wing size) of the anterior and posterior eyespots on the dorsal forewing: 'LL' ('Large-Large') and 'SS' ('Small-Small') are concerted directions; 'LS' ('Large-Small') and 'SL' ('Small-Large') are antagonistic directions. C and D, Representative phenotypes for each selected direction in generation 10 (C, ventral hindwings shown for color composition lines; D, dorsal forewings shown for eyespot size lines; wings arranged according to axes in A and B).
Allen et al. BMC Evolutionary Biology 2008 8:94 doi:10.1186/1471-2148-8-94