Synthetic representation of the phylogenetic structure of E. quimperiana populations from Brittany, Spain and the Basque Country. Ha and Cn: outgroups corresponding respectively to Cantareus aspersus and Cepaea nemoralis. The scaled bar under the trees represents a 0.1% sequence divergence. Genetically sustained refugia during the glaciations are localized in Picos de Europa in Spain (RPE) and the Basque Country in the Pyrenees (RPY), while a putative third refugia during the last glaciations may be hypothesized in Brittany (RB?). The localized distribution of the related species Norelona pyrenaica is specified (eastern Pyrenees).
Vialatte et al. BMC Evolutionary Biology 2008 8:339 doi:10.1186/1471-2148-8-339