This article is part of the supplement: Second Congress of Italian Evolutionary Biologists (First Congress of the Italian Society for Evolutionary Biology)

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Formamide as the main building block in the origin of nucleic acids

Giovanna Costanzo1, Raffaele Saladino12, Claudia Crestini3, Fabiana Ciciriello4 and Ernesto Di Mauro5*

Author Affiliations

1 Istituto di Biologia e Patologia Molecolari, CNR, P.le Aldo Moro, 5, Rome 00185, Italy

2 Dipartimento A.B.A.C., Università della Tuscia, Via San Camillo De Lellis, Viterbo, Italy

3 Marine Dipartimento di Scienze e Tecnologie Chimiche, Università "Tor Vergata", Rome 00133, Italy

4 Fondazione "Istituto Pasteur-Fondazione Cenci-Bolognetti" c/o Dipartimento di Genetica e Biologia Molecolare, Università "La Sapienza" di Roma, P.le Aldo Moro, 5, Rome 00185, Italy

5 Ernesto Di Mauro, Dipartimento di Genetica e Biologia Molecolare, Università "La Sapienza" di Roma, P.le Aldo Moro, 5, 00185 Rome, Italy

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BMC Evolutionary Biology 2007, 7(Suppl 2):S1  doi:10.1186/1471-2148-7-S2-S1

Published: 16 August 2007


The simplest molecules grouping the four most common elements of the universe H,C,O and N (with the exception of the biologically inert He) are isocyanate HNCO and formamide H2NCOH. Reasons for the availability of formamide on prebiotic Earth are presented. We review evidence showing that formamide in the presence of largely available catalysts and by moderate heating yields the complete set of nucleic bases necessary for the formation of nucleic acids. Formamide also favours the formation of acyclonucleosides and the phosphorylation and trans-phosphorylation of nucleosides, thus providing a plausible chemical frame for the passage from a simple one-carbon compound to nucleic polymers. Physico-chemical conditions exist in which formamide favours the stability of the phosphoester bonds in nucleic polymers relative to that of the same bonds in monomers. Starting from a formamide-laden environment subject only to the laws of chemistry, a hypothesis is outlined sketching the passage towards an aqueous world in which Darwinian rules apply.