Table 1

Life history traits of the species assigned to the „ossified group" of lamprologines.

species

Shell-breeding

parental care

mating system


Altolamprologus calvus

no

MG

monogamy?

Altolamprologus compressiceps

no

MG

harem

Altolamprologus sp. "shell"

obligatory

?

?

Lamprologus callipterus

obligatory

MG

harem

Lamprologus kungweensis

no

MG

monogamy

Lamprologus laparogramma

facultative

MG

monogamy

Lamprologus lemairii

facultative

MG

harem

Lamprologus meleagris

obligatory

MG

harem

Lamprologus ocellatus

obligatory

MG

harem

Lamprologus ornatipinnis

obligatory

MG

harem

Lamprologus signatus

facultative

MG

monogamy

Lamprologus speciosus

obligatory

MG

harem

Lepdiolamprologus attenuatus

facultative*

BG

mono(bi)gamy

Lepidiolamprologus boulengeri

obligatory

MG

monogamy?

Lepidiolamprologus elongatus

no

BG

mono(bi)gamy

Lepidiolamprologus hecqui

obligatory

MG

?

Lepidiolamprologus kendalli+

no

BG

monogamy?

Lepidiolamprologus meeli

obligatory

MG

harem

Lepidiolamprologus nkambae+

no

BG

monogamy?

Lepidiolamprologus pleuromaculatus+

facultative

MG

harem

Lepidiolamprologus profundicola

no

MG

harem

Lepidiolamprologus sp. "meeli-boulengeri"

obligatory

MG

harem

Lepidiolamprologus sp. nov

no

?

?

Neolamprologus brevis

obligatory

MG

harem

Neolamprologus calliurus

obligatory

MG

harem

Neolamprologus caudopunctatus

facultative

BG

monogamy

Neolamprologus fasciatus

facultative

MG

harem

Neolamprologus leloupi

facultative

BG

monogamy

Neolamprologus multifasciatus

facultative

MG

monogamy?

Neolamprologus similis

facultative

MG

monogamy?

Neolamprologus variostigma+

no

?

?

Neolamprologus wauthioni

obligatory

MG

harem


Note: In all species males grow slightly larger than females, but there are only five species – Lamprologus callipterus, Lamprologus lemairii, Lamprologus ornatipinnis, Neolamprologus calliurus, Neolamprologus fasciatus – exhibiting extreme sexual size dimorphism with males growing to at least the double size of females.

MG, maternal guarding; BG, biparental guarding.

+, species is not included in this study.

*, Lepidiolamprologus attenuatus is too large to enter empty gastropod-shells. Thus, this species occasionally deposits its eggs on the outside of the shell; after hatching fry is transferred into the shell.

Information on the species listed is based on [3, 4, 14, 63–65].

Koblmüller et al. BMC Evolutionary Biology 2007 7:7   doi:10.1186/1471-2148-7-7

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