Evolution of measures over time for a particular set of conditions (c = 0.45, D = 0). (a) Number of shared regulatory elements (H) between paralogous cis-regulatory elements declines over time. (b) Regulatory subfunctionalization (see Methods – Measures for paralogous genes) as a proportion of the number of eligible genes (defined as the number of rows with two or more nonzero entries), since we need to adjust for genes with N < 2, which cannot be subfunctionalized. (c) Neofunctionalization increases monotonically, then stabilizes. (d) Temporal subfunctionalization as a proportion of the number of genes. Graphs show median values and 95% confidence interval (errorbars) over 200 independent runs.
MacCarthy and Bergman BMC Evolutionary Biology 2007 7:213 doi:10.1186/1471-2148-7-213