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Open Access Research article

Patterns of selective constraints in noncoding DNA of rice

Xingyi Guo1, Yu Wang1, Peter D Keightley2 and Longjiang Fan1*

Author Affiliations

1 Institute of Crop Science & Institute of Bioinformatics, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310029, China

2 Institute of Evolutionary Biology, University of Edinburgh, West Mains Road, Edinburgh EH9 3JT, UK

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BMC Evolutionary Biology 2007, 7:208  doi:10.1186/1471-2148-7-208

Published: 1 November 2007

Abstract

Background

Several studies have investigated the relationships between selective constraints in introns and their length, GC content and location within genes. To date, however, no such investigation has been done in plants. Studies of selective constraints in noncoding DNA have generally involved interspecific comparisons, under the assumption of the same selective pressures acting in each lineage. Such comparisons are limited to cases in which the noncoding sequences are not too strongly diverged so that reliable sequence alignments can be obtained. Here, we investigate selective constraints in a recent segmental duplication that includes 605 paralogous intron pairs that occurred about 7 million years ago in rice (O. sativa).

Results

Our principal findings are: (1) intronic divergence is negatively correlated with intron length, a pattern that has previously been described in Drosophila and mammals; (2) there is a signature of strong purifying selection at splice control sites; (3) first introns are significantly longer and have a higher GC content than other introns; (4) the divergences of first and non-first introns are not significantly different from one another, a pattern that differs from Drosophila and mammals; and (5) short introns are more diverged than four-fold degenerate sites suggesting that selection reduces divergence at four-fold sites.

Conclusion

Our observation of stronger selective constraints in long introns suggests that functional elements subject to purifying selection may be concentrated within long introns. Our results are consistent with the presence of strong purifying selection at splicing control sites. Selective constraints are not significantly stronger in first introns of rice, as they are in other species.