Table 1

Statistics on the temporal distribution of developmental events

Species (common name)

N

Avg. Stage

EPS

Student's t


Eleutherodactylus coqui (tree frog)

12

3.091

0.656 ± 0.110

t63 = -3.136 (P = 0.0026)

Xenopus laevis (clawed toad)

6

4.860

0.625 ± 0.108

t63 = -3.473 (P = 0.0009)

Emys orbicularis (pond turtle)

10

3.333

1.020 ± 0.093

t99 = 0.215 (P = 0.8305)

Lacerta viridis (wall lizard)

12

2.857

1.020 ± 0.093

t99 = 0.215 (P = 0.8305)

Gallus gallus (chicken)

10

2.188

0.875 ± 0.121

t63 = -1.033 (P = 0.3054)

Taeniopygia guttata (zebra finch)

7

3.091

0.922 ± 0.112

t63 = -0.697 (P = 0.4882)

Trichosurus vulpecula (brushtail possum)

15

2.500

1.640 ± 0.076

t99 = 8.432 (P < 0.0001)

Sminthopsis macroura (stripe-faced dunnart)

5

8.000

1.730 ± 0.060

t99 = 12.155 (P < 0.0001)

Dasyurus viverrinus (marsupial cat)

11

3.077

1.850 ± 0.048

t99 = 17.732 (P < 0.0001)

Erinaceus europaeus (hedgehog)

10

3.333

1.200 ± 0.094

t99 = 2.121 (P = 0.0364)

Talpa europea (mole)

10

3.333

1.230 ± 0.089

t99 = 2.596 (P = 0.0109)

Mus musculus (mouse)

12

2.857

1.090 ± 0.096

t99 = 0.933 (P = 0.3533)

Rousettus amplexicaudatus (fruitbat)

10

3.800

1.000 ± 0.101

t89 = 0.000 (P = 1.000)

Cynocephalus variegatus (flying lemur)

8

3.333

1.080 ± 0.088

t99 = 0.905 (P = 0.3677)


The event-pair score (EPS; presented as average ± SE) may range from 2 (forelimb advanced over hindlimb) to 0 (hindlimb advanced over forelimb). Two-tailed Student's t-tests were used to determine if the EPS was significantly different from 1. N is the number of stages of limb development identified and Avg. Stage is the mean number of events that occurred at each stage.

Bininda-Emonds et al. BMC Evolutionary Biology 2007 7:182   doi:10.1186/1471-2148-7-182

Open Data