Genetic distances among geminate teleost species. Pairwise Kimura 2-Parameter distances  between lineages of seahorses (white squares) and other teleost species (black squares) whose present-day distribution patterns indicate that they may have diverged as a result of the closures of the Central American, Indonesian, or Tethyan seaways, or as result of continental break-up and spreading of the Atlantic Ocean. A: Cytochrome b sequences; B: 16S rRNA sequences. Letters represent teleost lineages listed in Table 1. The black arrow indicates the pairwise distance between the two seahorses lineages hypothesized to have diverged as a result of closure of the Central American Seaway. These lineages were used to estimate divergence times in Table 2. White arrows indicate distances between lineages whose divergence time estimates matched published dates for the closures of the Indonesian and Tethyan seaways (Table 2). Asterisks indicate teleost lineages whose evolutionary rate differed from that of the seahorses (A: N), whose rates were not tested because a different portion of 16S rRNA was sequenced (B: A, C, M, O) or which were used as outgroup in relative rate tests (A: P, R; B: J).
Teske et al. BMC Evolutionary Biology 2007 7:138 doi:10.1186/1471-2148-7-138