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Open Access Highly Accessed Research article

Shooting darts: co-evolution and counter-adaptation in hermaphroditic snails

Joris M Koene12* and Hinrich Schulenburg34

Author Affiliations

1 Department of Animal Ecology, Institute of Ecological Sciences, Vrije Universiteit, De Boelelaan 1085, 1081 HV Amsterdam, The Netherlands

2 Department of Developmental and Behavioural Neurobiology, Faculty of Earth and Life Sciences, Vrije Universiteit, De Boelelaan 1085, 1081 HV Amsterdam, The Netherlands

3 Department of Evolutionary Biology, Institute for Animal Evolution and Ecology, Westphalian Wilhelms-University, Hüfferstrasse 1, 48149 Münster, Germany

4 Department of Animal Evolutionary Ecology, Zoological Institute, University of Tübingen, Auf der Morgenstelle 28, 72076 Tübingen, Germany

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BMC Evolutionary Biology 2005, 5:25  doi:10.1186/1471-2148-5-25

Published: 30 March 2005

Additional files

Additional File 1:

Principal component analyses on raw data and phylogenetically independent contrasts of love-dart and reproductive morphology data. The independent contrasts are based on the raw data and the three alternative trees (see Methods), namely BI or ML with and without consideration of five cases of phylogenetic uncertainty. The ML tree topologies with and without phylogenetic uncertainty were identical. The table shows the eigenvectors for each variable in the different principal components (PC). These vectors are a measure for the weight of the variable in the PC. The eigenvalue and % variance are given for each PC. These values express how much of the total variance in the data is explained by that PC.

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Additional File 2:

Matrix of Pearson correlations (below diagonal) and their significance (above diagonal) for the comparison of the different principal components (PC) and the flagellum based on the raw data and the three other phylogenetic trees. Results are shown for the raw data and the analyses based on PICs calculated from the BI with phylogenetic uncertainty and the ML trees either with or without phylogenetic uncertainty. Note that the ML trees with or without uncertainty are identical. *, Significance after Bonferroni correction.

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Additional File 3:

Information about the location and collectors of the species used in the analysis. Numbers behind collector names represent the catalog number in the malacological collection of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia. The EMBL accession numbers for the new and published DNA sequences are also included. Published sequences all derive from Wade et al. 2001 [25]. ‡, The specimens from this location were used for sequencing; § for these species the DNA sequence were available from EMBL but no specimens could be obtained for investigation. Therefore, the morphology data were based on Azuma 1995 [44].

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Additional File 4:

Description of the data scored for the different reproductive organ characteristics. When traits are absent these are scored as zero. All relative sizes were measured on the camera lucida drawings. When the size is indicated relative to the reproductive organs this refers to the posterior reproductive organs (excluding the albumen gland) thus making sure that they are independent of the size of the penis and bursa tract.

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Additional File 5:

The sequences for PCR and sequencing primers. Primers JOR58F, JOR59F, and JOR28R850 were used for PCR, whereby JOR59F was employed as the forward primer for Cernuella cisalpina and Euhadra quaesita, and JOR58F for all remaining species. Primers JOR28F50, JOR28F400, JOR28R401, JOR28F600, JOR28R601, and JOR28R850 were employed in sequencing reactions.

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