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Open Access Research article

Characterization of an endogenous retrovirus class in elephants and their relatives

Alex D Greenwood12*, Claudia C Englbrecht3 and Ross DE MacPhee2

Author Affiliations

1 GSF-National Research Center for Environment and Health, Institute of Molecular Virology, Ingolstädter Landstr. 1, D-85764 Neuherberg, Germany

2 Department of Vertebrate Zoology, American Museum of Natural History, Central Park West at 79th Street, New York, New York 10024-5192 USA

3 GSF-National Research Centre for Environment and Health, Institute of Bioinformatics, Ingolstädter Landstr. 1, D-85764 Neuherberg, Germany

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BMC Evolutionary Biology 2004, 4:38  doi:10.1186/1471-2148-4-38

Published: 11 October 2004



Endogenous retrovirus-like elements (ERV-Ls, primed with tRNA leucine) are a diverse group of reiterated sequences related to foamy viruses and widely distributed among mammals. As shown in previous investigations, in many primates and rodents this class of elements has remained transpositionally active, as reflected by increased copy number and high sequence diversity within and among taxa.


Here we examine whether proviral-like sequences may be suitable molecular probes for investigating the phylogeny of groups known to have high element diversity. As a test we characterized ERV-Ls occurring in a sample of extant members of superorder Uranotheria (Asian and African elephants, manatees, and hyraxes). The ERV-L complement in this group is even more diverse than previously suspected, and there is sequence evidence for active expansion, particularly in elephantids. Many of the elements characterized have protein coding potential suggestive of activity.


In general, the evidence supports the hypothesis that the complement had a single origin within basal Uranotheria.