Table 1

Estimates of divergence time among eukaryotes

Nodea

Comparison

Proteinsb

Amino acids (MG)

Divergence time estimates (Ma) from different methodsc



Total

MG

SG

MGGLS

MGLLS

SGGLS

SGLLS

SGLDT

SGLPL

Summary


5

Arthropoda vs. Vertebrata

151

120

82

49,644

1,070 ± 101

964 ± 132

942 ± 101

908 ± 132

975 ± 86

994 ± 21

976 ± 97 (786–1166)

6

Cnidaria vs. Bilateria

26

19

17

6,790

1,288 ± 71

1,136 ± 76

1,314 ± 71

1,243 ± 76

1,339 ± 210

1,468 ± 74

1,298 ± 74 (1153–1443)

7

Porifera vs. Eumetazoa

22

19

17

7,090

1,382 ± 151

1,282 ± 122

1,341 ± 151

1,285 ± 122

1,361 ± 211

1,457 ± 54

1,351 ± 120 (1116–1586)

9

Pyrenomycetes vs Plectomycetes

29

18

12

8,952

591 ± 75

559 ± 67

435 ± 75

564 ± 67

654 ± 62

500 ± 19

551 ± 61 (431–671)

10

Candida vs. Saccharomyces

29

21

18

8,918

718 ± 108

714 ± 95

834 ± 108

743 ± 95

725 ± 65

604 ± 14

723 ± 84 (558–888)

11

Hemiascomycetes vs. filamentous Ascomycota

51

33

31

11,683

1,071 ± 125

1,031 ± 103

1,066 ± 125

981 ± 103

915 ± 54

826 ± 16

982 ± 94 (798–1166)

12

Archiascomycetes vs. other Ascomycota

72

56

45

24,348

1,119 ± 83

956 ± 93

1,056 ± 83

994 ± 93

1,011 ± 37

920 ± 12

1,009 ± 73 (866–1152)

13

Basidiomycota vs. Ascomycota

41

27

19

8,504

1,056 ± 165

1,021 ± 112

969 ± 165

927 ± 112

975 ± 48

862 ± 25

968 ± 116 (741–1195)

14

Mucorales/Blastocladiales vs. Basidiomycota/Ascomycota

24

16

15

5,202

1,056 ± 61

1,022 ± 54

921 ± 61

901 ± 54

935 ± 50

845 ± 24

947 ± 51 (847–1047)

15

Fungi vs. animals

188

92

69

31,362

1,594 ± 106

1,492 ± 46

1,511 ± 106

1,449 ± 46

1,435 ± 225

1,594 ± 24

1,513 ± 66 (1384–1642)

17

Mosses vs. vascular plants

51

47

46

4,898

777 ± 103

702 ± 127

677 ± 103

638 ± 127

1,006 ± 62

742 ± 28

707 ± 98 (515–899)

18

Chlorophytan green algae vs. higher plants

74

63

58

14,333

1,055 ± 76

946 ± 145

921 ± 76

901 ± 145

1,138 ± 45

845 ± 22

968 ± 93 (786–1150)

19

Rhodophyta vs. Chlorophyta+Embryophyta

50

46

43

8,673

1,465 ± 109

1,449 ± 71

1,507 ± 109

1,382 ± 71

1,445 ± 34

1,319 ± 27

1,428 ± 77 (1277–1579)

20

Plants vs. animals

188

143

99

60,274

1,554 ± 67

1,524 ± 53

1,486 ± 67

1,502 ± 53

1,708 ± 283

1,878 ± 26

1,609 ± 60 (1491–1727)

21

Alveolates vs. plants+animals+fungi

76

60

44

21,031

2,086 ± 83

1,807 ± 95

2,011 ± 83

1,903 ± 95

1,972 ± 49

2,057 ± 35

1,973 ± 78 (1820–2126)

22

Euglenozoans vs. plants+animals+fungi

99

80

52

27,759

1,968 ± 56

1,887 ± 68

2,018 ± 56

1,863 ± 68

2,010 ± 61

2,020 ± 35

1,961 ± 57 (1849–2073)

23

Giardia vs. plants+animals+fungi

45

32

28

11,251

2,276 ± 202

2,421 ± 258

2,424 ± 202

2,287 ± 258

2,153 ± 69

2,295 ± 51

2,309 ± 194 (1929–2689)


a-nodes correspond to the eukaryote phylogenetic tree (Fig. 2). Nodes 1–4 are fossil times and nodes 8 and 16 are phylogenetically constrained (see legend to Fig. 2) and are not shown. b-MG, constant rate proteins used in multigene analyses; SG, proteins used in supergene (concatenated) analyses. c-all error terms, except those for SGLDT, are standard errors of the mean. For SGLDT, the standard deviation is presented, and "credibility intervals" (asymmetric) for that method are presented in Supplemental Table 1 (see 1). Averages of all times and standard errors, excluding one outlier (italics), are shown in the column labeled "Summary," along with the 95% confidence interval.

Hedges et al. BMC Evolutionary Biology 2004 4:2   doi:10.1186/1471-2148-4-2

Open Data