Open Access Highly Accessed Research article

Evolutionary origins of sensation in metazoans: functional evidence for a new sensory organ in sponges

Danielle A Ludeman1, Nathan Farrar1, Ana Riesgo2, Jordi Paps3 and Sally P Leys1*

Author Affiliations

1 Department of Biological Sciences, University of Alberta, CW 405 Biological Sciences Building, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 2E9, Canada

2 Department of Animal Biology, Universitat de Barcelona, Avinguda Diagonal 643, Barcelona 08028, Spain

3 Department of Zoology, University of Oxford, Oxford OX1 3PS, UK

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BMC Evolutionary Biology 2014, 14:3  doi:10.1186/1471-2148-14-3

Published: 13 January 2014

Additional files

Additional file 1: Figure S1:

Cilia in the oscula of various demosponges a. Ephydatia muelleri,b, c. Spongilla lacustris, d. Neopetrosia vanilla, e. Haliclona mollis, f. Haliclona sp,. g. Neopetrosia problematica, h. Aphrocallistes vastus. Scale bars 1 μm. Figure S2: Uncompressed tree showing the evolutionary relationships of sponge TRP Type I and II genes. Values at nodes indicate Bootstrap support. Figure S3: Full alignment of TRP sequences for the uncompressed tree from Figure 5a. Figure S4: Phylobayes alignment of data in 5c. Figure S5: Full alignment of sequences in Figure 5c and list of Sponge TRP Fastas.

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Additional file 2: Movie S1:

Cilia in the osculum of a live sponge, Ephydatia muelleri, labeled using FM1-43. High-frequency time-lapse microscopy (images taken at 50 millisecond intervals with exposure of 50 milliseconds) indicates that the cilia are non-motile and only vibrate in the flow that passes out the osculum.

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