Open Access Highly Accessed Research article

Intracolonial genetic variation affects reproductive skew and colony productivity during colony foundation in a parthenogenetic termite

Satoshi Miyazaki12, Miho Yoshimura1, Ryota Saiki1, Yoshinobu Hayashi3, Osamu Kitade4, Kazuki Tsuji5 and Kiyoto Maekawa1*

Author Affiliations

1 Graduate School of Science and Engineering, University of Toyama, Gofuku, Toyama, 930-8555, Japan

2 Department of Hygiene and Public Health, Tokyo Women’s Medical University, Shinjuku-ku, 162-8666, Tokyo, Japan

3 Graduate School of Environmental Science, Hokkaido University, Sapporo, 060-0810, Hokkaido, Japan

4 College of Science, Ibaraki University, Mito, 310-8512, Ibaraki, Japan

5 Faculty of Agriculture, University of the Ryukyus, Nishihara, 903-0213, Okinawa, Japan

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BMC Evolutionary Biology 2014, 14:177  doi:10.1186/s12862-014-0177-0

Published: 14 August 2014



In insect societies, intracolonial genetic variation is predicted to affect both colony efficiency and reproductive skew. However, because the effects of genetic variation on these two colony characteristics have been tested independently, it remains unclear whether they are affected by genetic variation independently or in a related manner. Here we test the effect of genetic variation on colony efficiency and reproductive skew in a rhinotermitid termite, Reticulitermes speratus, a species in which female-female pairs can facultatively found colonies. We established colonies using two types of female-female pairs: colonies founded by sisters (i.e., sister-pair colonies) and those founded by females from different colonies (i.e., unrelated-pair colonies). Colony growth and reproductive skew were then compared between the two types of incipient colonies.


At 15 months after colony foundation, unrelated-pair colonies were larger than sister-pair colonies, although the caste ratio between workers and nymphs, which were alternatively differentiated from young larvae, did not differ significantly. Microsatellite DNA analyses of both founders and their parthenogenetically produced offspring indicated that, in both sister-pair and unrelated-pair colonies, there was no significant skew in the production of eggs, larvae, workers and soldiers. Nymph production, however, was significantly more skewed in the sister-pair colonies than in unrelated-pair colonies. Because nymphs can develop into winged adults (alates) or nymphoid reproductives, they have a higher chance of direct reproduction than workers in this species.


Our results support the idea that higher genetic variation among colony members could provide an increase in colony productivity, as shown in hymenopteran social insects. Moreover, this study suggests that low genetic variation (high relatedness) between founding females increases reproductive skew via one female preferentially channeling her relatives along the reproductive track. This study thus demonstrated that, in social insects, intracolonial genetic variation can simultaneously affect both colony efficiency and reproductive skew.

Intracolonial genetic variation; Colony efficiency; Reproductive skew; Eusociality; Parthenogenesis; Caste differentiation; Nymph; Reticulitermes speratus