Natural and lab infections withO. unilateralis s.l..(A-B)C. castaneus(A) and C. americanus(B) infected with O. unilateralis s.l. collected in Donalds, SC. (C)O. unilateralis s.l. culture isolated from an infected C. castaneus specimen. (D-E) Manipulated C. castaneus(D) and C. americanus(E) upon infection with O. unilateralis s.l. in the lab.
de Bekker et al. BMC Evolutionary Biology 2014 14:166 doi:10.1186/s12862-014-0166-3