Open Access Research article

Convergent evolution of [D-Leucine1] microcystin-LR in taxonomically disparate cyanobacteria

Tânia Keiko Shishido1, Ulla Kaasalainen2, David P Fewer1, Leo Rouhiainen1, Jouni Jokela1, Matti Wahlsten1, Marli Fátima Fiore3, João Sarkis Yunes4, Jouko Rikkinen2 and Kaarina Sivonen1*

Author Affiliations

1 Department of Food and Environmental Sciences, Division of Microbiology and Biotechnology, University of Helsinki, Viikki Biocenter (Viikinkaari 9), P.O. Box 56, Helsinki, FIN-00014, Finland

2 Department of Biosciences, University of Helsinki, Viikki Biocenter (Viikinkaari 1), P.O. Box 65, Helsinki, FIN-00014, Finland

3 Center for Nuclear Energy in Agriculture, University of São Paulo, Avenida Centenário 303, Piracicaba, SP, 13400-970, Brazil

4 Unidade de Pesquisas em Cianobactérias, Federal University of Rio Grande, Av. Itália km 8 - Caixa Postal 474, Rio Grande, RS, 96.201-900, Brazil

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BMC Evolutionary Biology 2013, 13:86  doi:10.1186/1471-2148-13-86

Published: 19 April 2013

Additional files

Additional file 1: Table S2:

Chiral analysis of microcystin amino acids. Table S3: Amino acids incorporated by each adenylation domain of microcystin biosynthetic enzymes for the studied strains. Table S4: Primers used in this study. Table S5: Access number of strains compared in this study. Table S6. Primers designed for PCR mutagenesis. Figure S1: Phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA gene focusing in Phormidium sp. CENA270. Figure S2: Product ion spectra of [Met1] MC-LR of Microcystis sp. RST 9501 in the labeling experiment. Figure S3: Product ion spectra of protonated [Leu1]microcystins of Phormidium sp. CENA270. Figure S4. Phylogenetic congruence between housekeeping and microcystin synthetase genes. Figure S5: Comparison of McyA2 adenylation domain sequences from Microcystis strains. Figure S6: ATP-PPi exchange assay. Figure S7: Relative quantity of amino acids in detected microcystins for strains included in the phylogenetic tree.

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Additional file 2: Table S1:

Assignment of the main ions from microcystin variants produced by the studied strains in LC-MS/MS.

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Additional file 3:

Supplementary information in Methods. Additional file 3 is a PDF file that contains further information to complement the Methods sub-sections: Sequencing and phylogenetic analysis; McyA2 adenylation domain mutation and heterologous expression; and Chemical analysis.

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