Phylogeography of the rufous-collared sparrow inferred using mitochondrial control region sequences. (A) Approximate geographic range of Zonotrichia capensis in grey (following ; distribution in northern South America and Central America is patchier than represented here). Sampling localities are indicated by colour-coded circles to show haplotype origin in subsequent figures. Localities are also numbered (1 to 33 from north to south); details in Table 1 follow this numerical code. Finally, the distribution of Z. capensis individuals belonging to the three intraspecific lineages identified is indicated with black lines (labeled A, B and C as in the main text). (B) Median-joining network showing the relationship among the 44 CR haplotypes found. Circles represent distinct haplotypes with size proportional to the number of individuals in the sample that contained it (the smallest circles represent one individual, while the largest corresponds to 23). Haplotypes are colour-coded following sampling localities. The length of the lines that connect circles is proportional to the number of mutations in which haplotypes differ. Dotted lines indicate comparisons of divergence between lineages, with values of percent p distances facing the interior of the network and those corresponding to ΦST calculations on the exterior (p < 0.001 in all cases for the latter). Asterisks show haplotypes contained by samples that were chosen for further sequencing. (C) Bayesian 50% majority rule consensus tree produced using 396 bp of CR sequences from the CR dataset with posterior probabilities indicating node support. Z. capensis individuals are represented by the locality where they were sampled (colour-coded as in Figure 1A and numerically coded as in Table 1); lineage membership is indicated. Note that Brazilian localities (coded in white) are shown with a dark background for increased contrast. Low posterior probabilities (below 0.90) were omitted for simplicity. Asterisks as in (B).
Lougheed et al. BMC Evolutionary Biology 2013 13:58 doi:10.1186/1471-2148-13-58