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Open Access Research article

A new xinjiangchelyid turtle from the Middle Jurassic of Xinjiang, China and the evolution of the basipterygoid process in Mesozoic turtles

Márton Rabi12*, Chang-Fu Zhou3, Oliver Wings4, Sun Ge3 and Walter G Joyce15

Author Affiliations

1 Institut für Geowissenschaften, University of Tübingen, Hölderlinstraße 12, 72074, Tübingen, Germany

2 Department of Paleontology & MTA–ELTE Lendület Dinosaur Research Group, Eötvös Loránd University, Budapest, Hungary

3 Paleontological Institute, Shenyang Normal University, 253 North Huanghe Street, Shenyang 110034, China

4 Niedersächsisches Landesmuseum Hannover, 5 Willy-Brandt-Allee, Hannover 530169, Germany

5 Yale Peabody Museum of Natural History, 170 Whitney Avenue, New Haven, Connecticut 06511, USA

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BMC Evolutionary Biology 2013, 13:203  doi:10.1186/1471-2148-13-203

Published: 22 September 2013

Abstract

Background

Most turtles from the Middle and Late Jurassic of Asia are referred to the newly defined clade Xinjiangchelyidae, a group of mostly shell-based, generalized, small to mid-sized aquatic froms that are widely considered to represent the stem lineage of Cryptodira. Xinjiangchelyids provide us with great insights into the plesiomorphic anatomy of crown-cryptodires, the most diverse group of living turtles, and they are particularly relevant for understanding the origin and early divergence of the primary clades of extant turtles.

Results

Exceptionally complete new xinjiangchelyid material from the ?Qigu Formation of the Turpan Basin (Xinjiang Autonomous Province, China) provides new insights into the anatomy of this group and is assigned to Xinjiangchelys wusu n. sp. A phylogenetic analysis places Xinjiangchelys wusu n. sp. in a monophyletic polytomy with other xinjiangchelyids, including Xinjiangchelys junggarensis, X. radiplicatoides, X. levensis and X. latiens. However, the analysis supports the unorthodox, though tentative placement of xinjiangchelyids and sinemydids outside of crown-group Testudines. A particularly interesting new observation is that the skull of this xinjiangchelyid retains such primitive features as a reduced interpterygoid vacuity and basipterygoid processes.

Conclusions

The homology of basipterygoid processes is confidently demonstrated based on a comprehensive review of the basicranial anatomy of Mesozoic turtles and a new nomenclatural system is introduced for the carotid canal system of turtles. The loss of the basipterygoid process and the bony enclosure of the carotid circulation system occurred a number of times independently during turtle evolution suggesting that the reinforcement of the basicranial region was essential for developing a rigid skull, thus paralleling the evolution of other amniote groups with massive skulls.