Table 1

Pseudogene remnants of enamel matrix protein (EMP) genes in edentulous and enamelless amniotes
Tooth gene Taxon
Turtles Birds Mammals
1. ENAM Frameshift mutations in Chrysemys exon 9 (Additional file 1) Frameshift mutations in exon 9 of Anas, Gallus, Meleagris, Melopsittacus, and Taeniopygia (Additional file 1; also see Al-Hashimi et al. [18]) Frameshift mutations in exon 10 (homologous to exon 9 of Alligator) of Tubulidentata (aardvark), Pholidota (pangolins), Xenarthra (anteaters, sloths, armadillos), Mysticeti (baleen whales), and Kogiidae (pygmy and dwarf sperm whales) [1,2]
2. AMBN Frameshift mutations in Chrysemys picta exons 6 and 11 (Additional file 3) Frameshift mutations in Anas platyrhynchos (exons 6, 8), Gallus gallus (exons 3, 6), and Taeniopygia guttata (exon 6); stop codon in exon 8 of Melopsittacus undulatus (Additional file 3) Frameshift mutations in exon 13 of seven baleen whales (Mysticeti) [1,3]; premature stop codon in exon 13 of Monodon monoceros[19]; multiple inactivating mutations in Orycteropus afer (stop codon in exon 5, complete deletion of exon 6, frameshift deletion in exon 13) (Additional file 5); acceptor splice site mutation in intron 2 of Choloepus hoffmanni (AG to AT)
3. AMEL Framshift mutations in Chrysemys picta (exon 1) and Pelodiscus sinensis (exons 1, 3, 4) (Additional file 7) Frameshift mutations in Anas platyrhynchos (exons 1, 2, 3, 4), Gallus gallus (exons 1, 2, 4), Meleagris gallopavo (exons 1, 2), Melopsittacus undulatus (exons 1, 2), and Taeniopygia guttata (exons 2) (Additional file 7; also see Sire et al. [20] and Davit-Béal et al. [21]) Frameshift mutations in Choloepus hoffmanni (exons 2, 6), deletion of 3’ end of intron 6 (including splice site) and first 14 bp of exon 7 in Dasypus novemcinctus, and two stop codons in exon 6 of Orycteropus afer (Additional file 11); frameshift mutations in exon 6 of five mysticetes [1,3]

Meredith et al.

Meredith et al. BMC Evolutionary Biology 2013 13:20   doi:10.1186/1471-2148-13-20

Open Data