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Strong population genetic structuring in an annual fish, Nothobranchius furzeri, suggests multiple savannah refugia in southern Mozambique

Veronika Bartáková12, Martin Reichard1, Karel Janko13, Matej Polačik1, Radim Blažek1, Kathrin Reichwald4, Alessandro Cellerino45 and Josef Bryja12*

Author Affiliations

1 Institute of Vertebrate Biology, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Květná 8, Brno 603 65, Czech Republic

2 Department of Botany and Zoology, Faculty of Science, Masaryk University, Kotlářská 2, Brno 611 37, Czech Republic

3 Institute of Animal Physiology and Genetics, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Veveří 97, Brno 602 00, Czech Republic

4 Leibniz Institute for Age Research – Fritz Lipmann Institute, Beutenbergstrasse 11, Jena 07745, Germany

5 Scuola Normale Superiore, Plazza dei Cavalieri 6, Pisa 56100, Italy

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BMC Evolutionary Biology 2013, 13:196  doi:10.1186/1471-2148-13-196

Published: 12 September 2013

Additional files

Additional file 1:

Protocols for genotyping microsatellites and mtDNA. (a) Genotyping of microsatellites. (b) Genotyping of mtDNA.

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Additional file 2:

Pairwise FST and isolation by distance. (a) Matrix of pairwise FST values calculated in Genetix. Highlighted values indicate pairs with non-significant FST values (i.e. p > 0.01). (b) Correlation between Ln(distance) and linearized pairwise FST values (FST /(1- FST)) tested with Mantel tests (1000 permutations). Isolation by distance was calculated separately for the three population groups and for the whole dataset. Red points indicate pairwise FST including most isolated localities in all three main groups; i.e. Pop323 in Chefu, Pop13 in LimpN, and Pop124 in LimpS.

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Additional file 3:

Additions to analysis of population genetic structure. (a) Evaluation of 20 runs in STRUCTURE for each number of presumable clusters from K = 2 to K = 15. (i) Likelihood of models in STRUCTURE for increasing number of populations (K); (ii) Estimation of the best K division according to Evanno et al. (2005). The most supported division is for K = 2, but suitable models are represented also by K = 5, 7, 9, and 13. (b) Assignment of individuals to particular populations using models for K = 2 to 15 in STRUCTURE (based on 13 microsatellite loci). Codes for localities correspond to Figures 1 and 2, the names on the left indicate the mtDNA haplogroup. Population 406 with mtDNA from two haplogroups (Limpopo N and Chefu) is marked with a red arrow. (c) Spatial clustering of populations constructed in the program BAPS based on 13 microsatellite loci. Identical colours represent populations with similar genotypic composition. The best model suggests clustering into 13 different populations, therefore indicating strong genetic differentiation among the study populations. We also used suboptimal models to show the hierarchical structure of the sampled populations.

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