Table 5

Listing of animal lineages with known biogeographic transitions between Andean and Amazonian habitats
Class Group Taxa Highest elevation Number of transitions Ages of transition Source(s)
ANDES-TO-AMAZON
Mammals vesper mice (Sigmodontinae) Calomys 5000 m 1* 16.3% in cyt-b (8.2 Ma) a [21]
Mammals olingos (Procyonidae) Bassaricyon 2750 m 1* 3.5 Ma [93]
Birds antshrikes (Thamnophilidae) Thamnophilus 2300 m 1 < 1 Ma b [14]
Birds tanagers (Thraupidae) Tangara 3500 m 6 7.5, 7.5, 5, 3, 3, and 3 Ma c [94,95]
Birds spinetails (Furnariidae) Cranioleuca 4400 m 2 1 and 0.5 Ma c [94]
Birds miners (Furnariidae) Geositta 4900 m 3 10, 9, and 5 Ma c [94]
Birds ovenbirds (Furnariidae) Cinclodes 5200 m 1 0.5 Ma c [94]
Birds greenfinches (Fringillidae) Carduelis 4600 m 2 1 and 0.5 Ma c [94]
Birds parrots (Psittacidae) Pionus (menstruus group) 3000 m 1* 5.6 Ma [15]
Amphibians poison frogs (Dendrobatidae) Dendrobates 1958 m 3 21.1, 6.5, and 2.4 Ma d [20]
Amphibians poison frogs (Dendrobatidae) Hyloxalus 3500 m 5 7.4, 5.6, 5.1, 4.7, and 1.6 Ma d [20]
Amphibians poison frogs (Dendrobatidae) Ameerega 2020 m 4 7.2, 6.7, 6.1, and 3.1 Ma d [20,96]
Amphibians salamanders (Plethodontidae) Bolitoglossa 2000 m 1 23.6 Ma e [97]
Insects butterflies (Nymphalidae) Ithomia 2400 m 2 10 and 7 Ma f [98]
Insects butterflies (Nymphalidae) Napeogenes 2700 m 2 11 and 2 Ma f [98]
AMAZON-TO-ANDES
Mammals spiny tree-rats (Echimyidae) Mesomys 1581 m 1 2.8–1.2 Ma This study
Mammals bamboo rats (Echimyidae) bamboo rat clade 3200 m 1 9.0–4.2 Ma This study
Mammals mouse opossums (Didelphidae) Marmosa (Micoureus) 1634 m 1* 12.7% in cyt-b (6.4 Ma) a [19,99,100]
Mammals night monkeys (Nyctipithecidae) Aotus 3200 m 1 < 1 Ma g [101]
Mammals howler monkeys (Atelidae) Alouatta 3200 m 2 2.5 and 2.5 Ma g [101]
Birds antshrikes (Thamnophilidae) Thamnophilus 2300 m 2 5.5–3 and 3.6–1.6 Ma b [14]
Birds flycatchers (Tyrannidae) Leptopogon 2700 m 2 9–6 and 6–3 Ma [12]
Birds flycatchers (Tyrannidae) Myarchus 3000 m 1 3 Ma c [94]
Birds parrots (Psittacidae) Pionus (sordidus group) 3000 m 1 3.0 Ma [15]
Birds parrots (Psittacidae) Amazona 3300 m 2 2 and 1 Ma c [94]
Birds tanagers (Thraupidae) Tangara 3500 m 6 7, 4, 3.5, 3, 3, and 1 Ma c [94,95]
Birds trogons (Trogonidae) Trogon 3400 m 2 7 and 6 Ma c [94]
Birds potoos (Nyctibiidae) Nyctibius 2800 m 1 7.5 Ma c [94]
Birds blackbirds (Icteridae) blackbird clade 3200 m 3 5, 4, and 3.5 Ma c [94]
Birds oropendolas (Icteridae) Psarocolius and relatives 3300 m 3 5.5, 2, and 1 Ma c [94]
Birds orioles (Icteridae) Icterus 2800 m 3 7, 5.5, and 1 Ma c [94]
Birds woodcreepers (Furnariidae) Xiphorhynchus 2400 m 2 5 and 3.5 Ma c [94]
Birds woodcreepers (Furnariidae) Dendrocincla 2500 m 1 7 Ma c [94]
Birds woodpeckers (Picidae) Veniliornis 3600 m 4 4, 3.5, 1, and 1 Ma c [94]
Birds swallows (Hirundininae) Neotropical swallow clade 4400 m 4 11, 6, 3.5, and 2 Ma c [94]
Amphibians poison frogs (Dendrobatidae) Dendrobates 1958 m 1 4.4 Ma d [20]
Amphibians poison frogs (Dendrobatidae) Ameerega 2020 m 1 2.4 Ma d [20]
Amphibians poison frogs (Dendrobatidae) Allobates 2630 m 5 21.8, 15.2, 10.6, 1.2, and 0.8 Ma d [20]
Insects butterflies (Riodinidae) Ithomiola 2100 m 2 not dated [13]
Insects butterflies (Nymphalidae) Napeogenes 2700 m 2 5.5 and 4.5 Ma f [98]

a Divergences using cyt-b were converted to years using the rate 2% per Ma after Ferris et al. [102].

b Age of the T. ruficapillusT. torquatus transition was estimated from Figure 3 and the age of other splits [14].

c Ages were estimated from Online Figure 2[94].

d Polarity and ages of transition were obtained from Figures 2 and S12 [20].

e The divergence of B. sp. Chilma from the remaining lowland forms Figures 3 and 5[97].

f Polarities and ages were estimated from Figure 2[98].

g Ages were estimated from Figure 4[101]; transitions were inferred from phylogenetic relationships and the IUCN database [32].

Polarity categories of “Andes-to-Amazon” or “Amazon-to-Andes” are based on inferences from phylogenies, geographic ranges of living taxa, and/or ancestral state reconstructions. An asterisk (*) denotes instances of outgroup uncertainty that could influence the polarity of a transition. Ages of transition are mean dates provided in the text of sources unless otherwise noted. The highest elevations for each taxon are reported from localities or databases [1,32].

Upham et al.

Upham et al. BMC Evolutionary Biology 2013 13:191   doi:10.1186/1471-2148-13-191

Open Data