Geographic ranges of target clades examined in this study (Andean species are noted in parentheses). (a) bamboo rats (Dactylomys peruanus, Olallamys albicauda, and O. edax); (b) brush-tailed rats (Isothrix barbarabrownae); and (c) spiny tree-rats (Mesomys cf. leniceps). Range maps are from the IUCN  database and are overlaid on a digital elevation map of northern South America (progressively darker shades of gray represent elevations from sea level to 6900 m).
Upham et al. BMC Evolutionary Biology 2013 13:191 doi:10.1186/1471-2148-13-191