Figure 3.

Allele frequency distributions with and without lag load in sexual and clonal populations. (a) Sexual population (N = 3000; host mutation rate, μh = 10-4 bits/allele/generation; parasite mutation rate, μp = 0; number of loci, L = 3) at steady state. The population is essentially fully adapted, and monomorphic over the short and long term. There is a small standing variation of low frequency alleles that does not register on the graph. (b) Clonal population (N = 3000; host mutation rate, μh = 10-4 bits/allele/generation; parasite mutation rate, μp = 0; number of loci, L = 3) at steady state. As in (a) above, the population is essentially fully adapted and monomorphic over the short and long term. Standing variation is almost identical to that in (a) above. (c) Sexual population (N = 3000; host mutation rate, μh = 10-4 bits/allele/generation; parasite mutation rate, μp = 10-2 bits/allele/generation; number of loci, L = 3) at steady state. Rank order frequency distribution (frequency average of commonest allele, second commonest, etc.) reflects the long run rank order averages from Figure 5(a). Substantial lag loads increase the frequency of lower order alleles. (d) A clonal population (N = 3000; host mutation rate, μh = 10-4 bits/allele/generation; parasite mutation rate, μp = 10-2 bits/allele/generation; number of loci, L = 3) at steady state. Rank-order frequency distribution of alleles reflects the long run rank order averages from Figure 5(b). Substantial lag loads increase the rank order frequency of previously rare alleles and cap the commonest allele at slightly less than 0.5. The level of heterozygosity increases markedly when compared with the sexual population under the same circumstances.

Green and Mason BMC Evolutionary Biology 2013 13:174   doi:10.1186/1471-2148-13-174
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