Locality-dependent growth retardation of the pale grass blue Z. maha. To obtain individual data on the eclosion and pupation times, pupated and eclosed individuals were recorded every day. The days of pupation and eclosion were counted starting from the very first day of the setting egg collection for each locality group. These data were used to construct the box plots. Statistically significant differences were obtained using the Kruskal-Wallis test in all four cases (p < 2.2 × 10-16) (A-D). The Steel-Dwass test was performed as a post-hoc test. All combinations with Tsukuba or Kobe were highly significant. Several combinations with significant p-values are shown. In addition, we constructed bar graphs in which a growth-retarded individual was defined as one that pupated 21 days or later after egg collection and one that eclosed 27 days or later after egg collection. These time points were set as dates of 99% pupae eclosed or 99% larvae pupated in the Kobe samples. The numbers of eclosed individuals are smaller than the number of pupated individuals because of pupal death. (A, B) Eclosion time (A) and pupation time (B) (box plots), and the number of the growth-retarded individuals toward eclosion (A) and pupation (B) (bar graphs) in the May samples. Note that the most retarded locality group was Hirono, the locality closest to the NPP. (C, D) Eclosion time (C) and pupation time (D) (box plots), and the number of the growth-retarded individuals toward eclosion (C) and pupation (D) (bar graphs) in the September/October samples.
Hiyama et al. BMC Evolutionary Biology 2013 13:168 doi:10.1186/1471-2148-13-168