Ecdysis and eclosion failure in the internal exposure experiment. The larvae from the Okinawa parents were fed the natural host plant collected from various localities. (A) A rare dead larva (dried specimen) that ate leaves from Okinawa (non-contaminated). External morphology of the late instar larva is similar to that of the live one (see Figure 2C, D). (B-D) Dead larvae (dried specimens) that ate contaminated leaves from Motomiya. The larvae had partially shed their shells, indicating the failure of ecdysis. Arrows indicate the partially shed shells, and the arrowheads indicate the heads of the larvae. (E, F) Dead adults that could not exit from the pupal case. They ate contaminated leaves from the Iitate flatland (FL) or Hirono. (G, H) Abnormal adults that failed eclosion despite exiting from the pupal case. They ate contaminated leaves from Fukushima.
Hiyama et al. BMC Evolutionary Biology 2013 13:168 doi:10.1186/1471-2148-13-168