Morphological and genetic spatial isolation. Scatterplot of pairwise morphological (a) and genetic (b) distance against pairwise geographic distance between populations. Morphological distance was calculated as the Euclidean distance between population-averaged scores on the first 2 BG-PCA axes of the size-corrected shape data (see Figure 2c), whereas genetic distances was calculated as population pairwise nucleotide differences in the cytochrome-b sequences. Points are colored according to which ecosystem the populations being compared pertain (i.e., puna, high-elevation páramo, or other population). The correlation coefficient and significance of both morphological and genetic trends are presented above each scatterplot. Note that the greatest genetic distances do not correspond to comparisons involving puna populations, but to those involving high páramo populations (named hPar in legend; see Additional file 2).
Alvarado-Serrano et al. BMC Evolutionary Biology 2013 13:160 doi:10.1186/1471-2148-13-160