Open Access Research article

Biogeographic and diversification patterns of Neotropical Troidini butterflies (Papilionidae) support a museum model of diversity dynamics for Amazonia

Fabien L Condamine12*, Karina L Silva-Brandão3, Gael J Kergoat1 and Felix AH Sperling4

Author Affiliations

1 INRA, UMR Centre de Biologie pour la Gestion des Populations, CBGP, (INRA/IRD/CIRAD/Montpellier SupAgro), Campus International de Baillarguet, CS30016, 34988, Montferrier-sur-Lez, France

2 CNRS, UMR 7641 Centre de Mathématiques Appliquées (École Polytechnique), Route de Saclay, 91128, Palaiseau, France

3 Departamento de Entomologia e Acarologia, Escola Superior de Agricultura “Luiz de Queiroz”, Universidade de São Paulo, Av. Padua Dias 11, Piracicaba, SP, Brazil, 13418-900

4 Department of Biological Sciences, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB, Canada, T6G 2E9

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BMC Evolutionary Biology 2012, 12:82  doi:10.1186/1471-2148-12-82

Published: 12 June 2012

Additional files

Additional file 1:

Dataset S1. MrBayes files (COI, COII and EF-1α separated and all genes combined into a single dataset) for phylogenetic analyses with all taxon sampling used for this study and GenBank accession numbers.

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Additional file 2:

Dataset S2. Paleogeographical model used in this study, with five time slices reflecting the probability of area connectivity through time. (TXT 2 kb)

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Additional file 3:

Dataset S3. Dated phylogeny of Neotropical Troidini: maximum clade credibility tree with median ages from the Bayesian uncorrelated lognormal method (implemented in BEAST) using nucleotide sequence data from 3 loci. (TXT 34 kb)

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Additional file 4:

Table S1. Results of analyses exploring diversification rates. A: Results of net diversification rates (speciation minus extinction; [62]) for Neotropical Troidini species for three values of extinction rates (ϵ). On the right, best-fit extinction rates are estimated by maximum likelihood analyses. B: Results for various diversification models using ΔAICRC test statistic [42]. These tests fit a specified set of rate-constant (RC) and rate-variable (RV) variants of the birth-death model to branching times. C: Results of branching times analyses testing for temporal diversification rate during the major climate changes (EOGM, LOWE, MMCO, and PPG) using a Yule model and likelihood analyses [42] as described in Winkler et al.[26] and Condamine et al.[36]. (DOC 79 kb)

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Additional file 5:

Figure S1. Results of species delimitation analyses using only the EF-1α gene to reconstruct the phylogeny. The GMYC model was not preferred over the null model of uniform branching rates (logL = 183.989, compared to null model logL = 183.646; 2ΔL = 0.687; χ2 test, d.f. = 3, p = 0.876). (PPT 105 kb)

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