Evolution of multiple preferences for naturally selected male traits. This figure shows the parameter space, in terms of costs of competition (γ) and strength of female preference (α), where a single preference for a naturally selected trait fixes (gray), both preferences fix (white), and both preferences are lost (black, on the far left along the y-axis). The top figure displays results for successive preference introduction, the bottom shows simultaneous preference introduction. Natural selection on traits counterbalances direct selection against preferences due to competition, allowing at least a single preference to fix under most parameter combinations.
Frame BMC Evolutionary Biology 2012 12:218 doi:10.1186/1471-2148-12-218