Open Access Research article

Nuclear and plastid haplotypes suggest rapid diploid and polyploid speciation in the N Hemisphere Achillea millefolium complex (Asteraceae)

Yan-Ping Guo1*, Shuai-Zhen Wang1, Claus Vogl2 and Friedrich Ehrendorfer3

Author Affiliations

1 Ministry of Education Key Laboratory for Biodiversity Science and Ecological Engineering, and College of Life Sciences, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875, China

2 Institute of Animal Breeding and Genetics, University of Veterinary Medicine, Vienna, A-1210 Vienna, Austria

3 Faculty Centre of Biodiversity, Faculty of Life Sciences, University of Vienna, A-1030 Vienna, Rennweg 14, Austria

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BMC Evolutionary Biology 2012, 12:2  doi:10.1186/1471-2148-12-2

Published: 3 January 2012

Additional files

Additional file 1:

The aligned polymorphic sites among 31 haplotypes of the sequenced ncpGS gene. These haplotypes are generated from 134 substitution sites among 186 clones (sequences) from 49 individuals of 20 populations of 10 diploid Achillea species (seven within and three outside A. millefolium agg.). Abbreviations of the species: (1) of A. millefolium agg.: asi = A. asiatica, asp = A. asplenifolia, cer = A. ceretanica, cus = A. cuspidate, lat = A. latiloba, ros = A. roseoalba and set = A. setacea; (2) of other species: acu = A. acuminata, lig = A. ligustica and nob = A. nobilis. Title of each haplotype sequence includes: abbreviation of species (number of populations/individuals/clones). Note: three haplotype of A. nobilis (nob) except the first one contain a recombination around the 89th polymorphic site between two or three haplotype groups of A. millefolium agg. (one above A. nobilis, and the others below). The sequences of A. cuspidate (cus) seems also containing a recombination around the 26th polymorphic site between those of A. ligustica (lig_SN) and some of A. millefolium agg. (e.g., several sequences at the top of the matrix).

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Additional file 2:

The aligned polymorphic sites among 21 SBP haplotypes. These haplotypes are generated from 60 substitution sites among 163 clones (sequences) from 35 individuals of 19 populations of 10 diploid Achillea species (seven within and three outside A. millefolium agg.). Abbreviations of the species: (1) of A. millefolium agg.: asi = A. asiatica, asp = A. asplenifolia, cer = A. ceretanica, cus = A. cuspidate, lat = A. latiloba, ros = A. roseoalba and set = A. setacea; (2) of other species: acu = A. acuminata, lig = A. ligustica and nob = A. nobilis. Title of each haplotype sequence includes: abbreviation of species (number of populations/individuals/clones).

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Additional file 3:

Unrooted Neighbour Joining cladogram of the SBP gene of all the diploid and polyploid taxa analyzed in this study. The tree contains 68 allelic haplotypes generated from 349 sequences with 68 substitution sites. Topology of the MP tree on the same data set is broadly comparable with that of the NJ tree. Bootstrap supports (> 50%) from NJ/MP analyses are shown next to the branches. Label of each terminal branch is written as "taxa abbreviation (population code-number of individuals/number of clones)". For taxa abbreviations, see Table 1. Diploid taxa are in black, polyploid taxa in different colors.

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Additional file 4:

Map showing the approximate distribution the 26 plastid haplotypes (H1-26) recognized across the temperate N Hemisphere. Pies indicate the proportion of haplotypes registered for individual taxa/cytotypes and the size of each pie correlated to the sample size from their generalized sampling areas.

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