Shape covariation between the molar zone and the angular process illustrated in F1 hybrids. (a) The covariation between the molar zone and the angular process was exemplified in the group of F1 hybrids. A Partial Least Squares analysis (PLS) extracted a first dimension of covariance expressing 96.6% of the total covariance between the two modules. Scores on the first PLS axis corresponding to the molar zone and to the angular axis (x and y axes on the scatterplot) were highly correlated (R = 0.810), showing that a change in the molar zone was consistently associated with a change in the angular process. (b) Shape changes along the axes, depicted by vectors pointing from the consensus to a shape change corresponding to a covariation of 0.070 along PLS1 of the molar zone and of 0.062 along PLS1 of the angular process. Left, molar zone; right, angular process.
Renaud et al. BMC Evolutionary Biology 2012 12:141 doi:10.1186/1471-2148-12-141