Sampling of the mandible shape and definition of its modules. (a) Whole mandible, sampled by 14 landmarks (dark dots) and eight curves, composed of sliding landmarks (open dots). (b) Partition of the mandible into two main modules (following Atchley et al. 1991): anteriorly, the alveolar part (in red) and posteriorly, the ramus (in blue). (c) Fine partition into five modules (following Monteiro et al. 2005): incisor-bearing zone (dark red), molar-bearing zone (orange) in the alveolar region; coronoid process (light blue), condyle (dark blue) and angular process (green) for the ramus region.
Renaud et al. BMC Evolutionary Biology 2012 12:141 doi:10.1186/1471-2148-12-141