Open Access Research article

Plio-Pleistocene sea level and temperature fluctuations in the northwestern Pacific promoted speciation in the globally-distributed flathead mullet Mugil cephalus

Kang-Ning Shen1*, Brian Wade Jamandre1, Chih-Chieh Hsu1, Wann-Nian Tzeng1 and Jean-Dominique Durand2

Author Affiliations

1 Institute of Fisheries Science, College of Life Science, National Taiwan University, Taipei 106, Taiwan, Republic of China

2 Institut de Recherche pour le Développement (IRD), UMR 5119 ECOSYM, Campus IRD/ISRA de Bel Air, BP 1386, CP 18524 Dakar, Sénégal

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BMC Evolutionary Biology 2011, 11:83  doi:10.1186/1471-2148-11-83

Published: 31 March 2011

Additional files

Additional file 1:

Table S1. Variable positions in the 627 bp mitochondrial COI gene segment of Mugil cephalus from 12 locations in the northwestern Pacific. Dots represent identical nucleotides relative to haplotype 1. Frequency of each haplotypes for each lineages (NWP1, NWP2 and NWP3) are also shown. Different color means the locations of the lineage specific nucleotides.

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Additional file 2:

Table S2. Genetic variability at ten microsatellite loci of Mugil cephalus collected in the northwestern Pacific for spatial and temporal genetic structure test. Table-wide significance levels were applied using the sequential Bonferroni technique [45].

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Additional file 3:

Table S3. Log probability and ΔK [50] for each number of clusters in the Bayesian assignment test as implemented in STRUCTURE [49].

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Additional file 4:

Table S4. The mean q-values and standard deviations (sd) for assignment test of 3 Mugil cephalus cryptic species (NWP1, NWP2 and NWP3) as implemented in STRUCTURE [49].

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Additional file 5:

Table S5. Genetic variability at ten microsatellite loci of Mugil cephalus among 3 cryptic species. Table-wide significance levels were applied using the sequential Bonferroni technique [45].

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Additional file 6:

Figure S1. Ethidium bromide stained 2% agarose gel showing the multiplex COI haplotype-specific PCR (MHS-PCR) for the rapid screening of three Mugil cephalus cryptic species in the NW Pacific. 1-13: unidentified individuals belonging either to lineage NWP1 (2), NWP2 (3, 8, 12, 13) or NWP3 (1, 4-7, 9-11). M: 100-bp DNA ladder.

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Additional file 7:

Figure S2. Phylogenetic relationships within Mugil cephalus recovered from 1140 bp of the cytochrome b sequences according to the neighbour-joining tree using Kimura 2 parameter distance. Leaves of the tree correspond to haplotypes of M. cephalus observed by Ke et al. [17] (H1-H43) and this study (H44-H55, in bold). The values above the branches are bootstrap support (500 replicates). Bootstrap supports higher than 50% are displayed.

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