The probability of survival was maximized for tadpoles in intermediate stages (e.g., Gosner stages 30-37) of development. Variation in survival is shown for the eight selection replicates used in our experiment (outer panels) and for all replicates pooled (central panel). The dark line represents the best fit cubic spline and light lines indicate the 95% confidence limits. The central panel includes illustrations of representative tadpoles/metamorphs at several developmental stages (indicated as numeric Gosner stages above each illustration).
Calsbeek and Kuchta BMC Evolutionary Biology 2011 11:353 doi:10.1186/1471-2148-11-353